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Vascular and Endovascular surgery at RxDx
Vascular and Endovascular surgery is a surgical subspeciality that provides comprehensive care for the diseases of (Blood vessels) arteries and the veins (Except the arteries of heart and brain).
Ballooning of the arteries(Aneurysms) especially in larger arteries(Aorta) may be asymptomatic but may lead to significant problems like rupture, bleeding of the artery leading to death.
Who are at Risk?
Vascular diseases are common in people who smoke and have atherosclerosis (development of fatty fibrotic plaques inside the arteries). These people develop high risk of heart attack, stroke or kidney failure. It is important to identify them before they manifest and can be prevented by control of risk factors.
Stroke is caused by various factors and one of them is blockage of the carotid arteries (present in the neck and supply brain). Usually strokes are preceded by Mini strokes(TIA) which recover soon and may herald a major stroke in future. In suitable patients major stroke can be prevented by surgery to clear blocks in the arteries.
Vasospatic disorders result from spasm of the small vessels of the hand causing episodic pale/blue discoloration of the fingers with severe pain.
Arteriovenous malformations,which can result in swelling, bleeding, developmental abnormalities of the involved region.
Other arterial diseases treated by vascular surgeon include Injured blood vessels, Tumors of the arteries(Carotid body Tumors), diseases of the blood vessels supplying intestines (mesenteric disease).
Following are some of the arterial and venous diseases and their presentations
Ischaemia(PAD-Peripheral arterial disease) is a condition associated with restricted blood supply to tissues caused due to blockage of arteries. Ischaemia not only causes a shortage of oxygen which is needed for cellular metabolism, it also leads to reduced availability of nutrients and inadequate removal of metabolic wastes from the affected area. Ischaemia in limbs can cause pain while walking(Claudication); at rest; blackish discolouration of toes/distal part of the foot/ hand (Gangrene) and ulcers that are resistant to healing.
- Varicose veins
Varicose vein (Dilated veins) are abnormally enlarged veins that are usually blue, purple, or skin-colored. They appear dilated and twisted that may appear as raised above the surface of the skin. It commonly affects adults with an increased prevalence in women.
Various risk factors include advanced age, prolonged sitting/standing, obesity, pregnancy, hormone therapy (HT), birth control pills, injury, prior vein surgery, a history of blood clots, and a family history.
They could be asymptomatic or cause vague symptoms such as discomfort, ache, swelling or can present with skin changes around the ankles and frank non-healing ulcers. They result from leaky valves in the veins which should maintain unidirectional flow towards the heart.
Deep vein thrombosis(DVT) is yet another venous condition often missed. This could result from stasis of blood, obstruction to flow by narrowing or tendency of clotting. If not diagnosed and treated,there is a risk of clot going up the blood stream and lodging in lung arteries(Pulmonary embolism) causing cardiac failure.