Hypertension- Causes, Risks, Diagnosis and Treatment

Overview High blood pressure is known as a silent disease as it may not present with any symptoms. However, it may slowly damage your organs like heart, brain, kidneys, and eyes if not treated appropriately and by timely intervention. This untreated high blood pressure can lead to major illnesses like stroke and heart attack to name a few. Luckily blood pressure can be easily detected and monitored. The blood is pumped by the heart and the resistance of the arteries would determine the blood pressure. Symptoms: Generally most patients have no signs, some may present with a headache, chest pain and shortness of breath. Some may present with bleeding from the nose. Causes Blood pressure is categorized into two types. Essential Hypertension where the cause is unknown and Secondary Hypertension where the cause is known like obstructive sleep apnoea, kidney ailments, polycythemia medications like decongestants, oral contraceptives and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like diclofenac. Other reasons could be congenital disorders of the blood vessels, excessive alcohol, and drugs like cocaine and methamphetamines. Genetic and environment over activation of sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, blunting pressure natriuresis, cardiovascular and renal development variation, elevated intracellular sodium and calcium can also be implicated as a cause of hypertension. High blood pressure has many risk factors, including: Age- More common after 45 yrs of age in men, women over 65 yrs will be affected too. Race- More common in Asians and blacks. A familial trait is possible. Being overweight or obese. Physically inactive individuals. Using tobacco increases your heart rate and causes damage to arteries. Excessive salt intake. Deficient potassium. Hypovitaminosis D. Drinking too much...